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Pyrolysis Process

  • Pyrolysis can be used to reprocess the tyres into fuel gas, fuel oil, solid residue (steel wire) and carbon black.
  • A pyrolysis method which produces activated carbon and high-grade carbon black.
  • The waste tyres are mainly composed of long chain of C-H molecules.
  • The major source is from process of pyrolysis, separation and compounding of Oil.
  • The technology of pyrolysis, cracking, monomerisation of used tyres is always a hot topic.

Tyre pyrolysis

  • The pyrolysis method for recycling used tyres is a technique which heats whole or shredded tyres in a reactor vessel containing an oxygen free atmosphere and a heat source.
  • In the reactor the rubber is softened after which the rubber polymers continuously breakdown into smaller molecules.
  • These smaller molecules eventually vaporize and exit from the reactor.
  • These vapors can be burned directly to produce power or condensed into an oily type liquid, generally used as a fuel.
  • Some molecules are too small to condense. They remain as a gas which can be burned as fuel.
  • The minerals that were part of the tyre, about 40 to 45 % by weight, are removed as a solid.
  • When performed well a tyre pyrolysis process is a very clean operation and has nearly no emissions or waste.
  • The properties of the gas, liquid and solid output are determined by the type of feed stock used and the process conditions.
  • For instance whole tyres contain fibers and steel. Shredded tyres have most of the steel and sometimes most of the fiber removed.
  • Batch wise Process is done by tyre pyrolysis.
  • The steel can be removed from the solid stream with magnets for recycling. The remaining solid material, often referred to as "charcoal".

Variety of polymer waste material is suitable as a raw material. Given below is the list of suitable raw materials for pyrolysis:

  • Waste tyres
  • Rubber or rubber parts from vehicles
  • Electronic scrap
  • Mixed waste from waste paper mill
  • Mixed (HDPE, LDPE, PE, PP, Nylon, Teflon, PS,ABS,FRP etc)
  • Multi layered
  • The choice of feedstock and process can impact the value of the finished products

    Input-output ratio of waste tyre

Input Material Input Quantity Output quantity
Nylon scrap tyres
1000kgs
-400 to 450 lit of Pyrolysis oil
-50 to 80 kg of Hydrocarbon Gas
-300 to 350 kg of Carbon Black
Redial scrap tyres
1000kgs
-400 to 450 lit of Pyrolysis oil
-50 to 80 kg of Hydrocarbon Gas
-300 to 350 kg of Carbon Black
     

Yield(End product) of pyrolysis process:

Pyrolysis oil (Fuel oil)
  • The essential product of tyre pyrolysis process is pyrolysis oil referred as fuel oil

(40 to 45 % of total quantity feed) which is used as a fuel component for heating oil’s and as a component in vessel fuels.

  • Purest quality of pyrolysis oil comparable to industrial diesel: selling price comparable to industrial diesel LDO( light diesel oil)
Carbon Black
    • The vital product of pyrolysis plant is carbon black referred as "charcoal"(30 to 35% of total quantity feed ).carbon black has Industrial and commercial use.

Steel wire
    • For instance whole tyres contain fibers and steel. Shredded tyres have most of the steel and sometimes most of the fiber removed.
    • The steel wire(15 to 20%) can be removed from the carbon black with magnets for recycling after pyrolysis process & sold to the steel dealer
Gas
  • The smaller molecules eventually vaporize and exit from the reactor. These vapors can be burned directly to produce power or condensed into an oily type liquid, generally used as a fuel. Some molecules are too small to condense. They remain as a gas( 5 to 8% of total quantity feed) which can be burned as fuel

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